Review of ‘Material’ – Iman Issa solo exhibition at Rodeo, Istanbul

First published in Frieze 2011. Many thanks to Mohammed Abdallah for Arabic translation and Doa Aly for Arabic copyediting. للنص العربي انظر أسفل الصفحة‬ شكر خاص للمترجم محمد عبدالله وللمراجعة دعاء علي

Iman Issa’s exhibition ‘Material’, developed a critical position around monuments quite different to that of the ‘anti-monument’. Anti-monuments, after all, are now part of the mainstream. The British public, for example, not only instantly grasped the critical thrust of the unassuming, feminized, interactive aspects of the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain (2004) in Hyde Park, London, but also fully and instinctively grasped the  failures of this very criticality. Monument and anti-monument have a complementary relationship that completes a circle and constitutes – as is the fate of all subversions – only the expansion of a language. Issa maintains her parallel relationship to this language by producing, not monuments or anti-monuments but ‘material for’ sculptures that might address the failings of, or apply alternative possibilities for, existing monuments.

Iman Issa, ‘Material for a sculpture recalling the destruction of a prominent public monument in the name of national resistance’ 2011. Image courtesy of Rodeo Gallery

In ‘Material’, the wall texts acted both as the title and a key component of the works, telling you no specifics of the original monument’s location or cultural specificity; only circumstantial details. The texts might refer directly to the original monument, (as with Material for a sculpture recalling the destruction of a prominent public monument in the name of national resistance, 2010); or a replacement for a failed monument (as with Material for a sculpture proposed as an alternative to a monument that has become an embarrassment to its people, 2010); and sometimes an original monument is not even mentioned (Material for a sculpture acting as a testament to both a nation’s pioneering development and continuing decline, 2011).

The materials accompanying the texts were correspondingly indeterminate;  readable as maquettes or sculptures, but, thanks to the texts, not heavily committed to either status. This allows the ‘materials’ to occupy precisely the opposite status of a monument itself, which is overdetermined with declarative purpose, recognition, and interpretability.

Nevertheless, they clearly evidenced attention to the formal tactics of the monument. Material for a sculpture recalling the destruction of a prominent public monument in the name of national resistance, for example, worked well as a pretty close description of bathos: a polished wooden slat ascended at something less than a 45-degree angle, supported by another vertical slat, with a long, black, drooping tassel fastened to its top end – the tassel was full of pomp but lacked the rigidity and power of inclination that the wooden structure suggested. Other uses of the language of commemoration were more obvious, such as the use of a vitrine containing personal effects in Material for a sculpture commemorating an economist whose name now marks the streets and squares he once frequented (2011).

As it happens, the monuments to which ‘Material’ referred are real objects with real histories that Issa relates to closely, but which she has chosen not to locate or describe. The viewer’s dependence on the textual clues and physical ‘materials for’ provokes a process of identification quite different to that of simply looking at the monument, one that opens up relationality between elements (and between those elements and ourselves) rather than symbolism. She seems not to be interested in a politicised acceptance or rejection of the process of interpellation (as with anti-monuments), but rather with analyzing its very forms and functions. Rather than invoking the monument itself, with all its distracting biographical and political specificities, Issa cuts straight to the questions of what physical forms are leveraged in the production of recognition, identification, sentiment, familiarity?

As a bass throb came from a speaker in the wall, and a second speaker, higher up, started emitting sounds reminiscent of rippling papers growing into the roar of a distant crowd, I felt a certain interpellation of experience corresponding to the title Material for a sculpture acting as a testament to both a nation’s pioneering development and continuing decline (2011). It’s up to the listener to decide what is the decline and what is the development – either sound, either speaker position could work. I couldn’t help but be reminded of the days in Cairo following the resignation of Hosni Mubarak, when, even when the streets were normal, the buildings still seemed to constantly resound with a sort of seashell crowd-roar. I know this piece is not about that, and this is the point: being reminded of the sound has far more force of interpellation than the handy naming of a specific revolutionary event itself, which in the context of this review already feels like a trite, reductive thing for me to do. In the same way a tuning fork can be struck on any surface, the effect is nonspecific but absolutely true, and if this is how Issa wishes to operate then she has more faith in the tactics (if not the specifics) of the monument than one might first assume. And this is fine, because given that currently I’m resistant to acts of monumentalisation, a piece such as Issa’s seems to be far more powerful.

إﻳﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ
ﺭﻭﺩﻳﻮ ﻏﺎﻟﻴﺮﻱ – ﺍﺳﻄﻨﺒﻮﻝ

ﻳﻗﻒ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ إيمان ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻮﻥ “ﻣﺎﺩﺓ” ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻭﺡ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﺎً ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﻳﺎً ﻭﻣﻐﺎﻳﺮﺍً ﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻼ- ﺻﺮﺡ. لقد ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻼ- ﺻﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺟﺰﺀً ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺮﻱ.  ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ، ﻟقد اﺴﺘﻮﻋﺐ ﻓﻮﺭﺍً ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻖ ﺍلاﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﻱ ﻷﻭﺟﻪ التواﺿﻊ ﻭالتأنيث ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎعلية ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻧﻄﻮﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﺎﻓﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﺎ ﺃﻣﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﻳﻠﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ٢٠٠٤ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﺭﻙ، ﺑﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﻋﺐ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ- ﻭبصورة ﻛﺎملة ﻭفطرية – ﻓﺸﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍلاﻨﺘﻘﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺫﺍﺗﻬﺎ.  ﺗﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻭﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﻼ- ﺻﺮﻭﺡ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺗﻜﺎﻓﻠﻴﺔ، ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺗﻜﻤﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﺨﻠﻖ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩﺍً ﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻻ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ، ﺷﺄﻧﻬما ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ المصير ﺷﺄﻥ اي نقيضين. ﺗﺤﻓﻆ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟمتوﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ، ﻭﺑﺪلاً ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﺻﺮﻭﺣﺎً ﺃﻭ ﻻ-ﺻﺮﻭح، ﺗﻓﺮﺯ “ﻣﺍﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ” ﻣﻨﺤﻮﺗﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﻓﺸﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ، ﺃﻭ ﺗﻃﺮﺡ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ.  ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ ﻓﻲ “ﻣﺎﺩﺓ” ﺩﻭﺭﺍً ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺟﺎً، ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺗﻤﺪﻧﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺑﻤﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻪ، ﻭﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﺠﺐ ﻋﻨﺎ أﻳﺔ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺡ الأﺻﻠﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺍلتفاصيل الظرفية.  ﻗﺪ ﺗﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺡ ﺍلأﺻﻠﻲ (ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺍﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺤﺘﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻀﺮ تدمير ﺻﺮﺡ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺭﺯ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻃنية، ٢٠١٠) ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺻﺮﺡ ﻓﺎﺷﻞ (ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺤﺘﻲ ﻣﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﻛﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻟﺼﺮﺡ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻋﺎﺭﺍً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻌﺒﻪ، ٢٠١٠) ﻭﻓﻲ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺡ الأﺻﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮﺓ (ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺤﺘﻲ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ التنمية الرائدة ﻷﻣﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﺤﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟمستمر، ٢٠١١)

ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ فقد ﻏﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻐﻤﻮﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﻟﻠنصوص، ﺇﺫ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻣﺠﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺤﻮﺗﺎﺕ، ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﺺ ﻓﻀﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺃلا ﺗﺮﺗﻜﻦ “ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ” ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻣﻨﺰﻟﺘﻴﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ.  ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﻤﺢ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ بأن ﺗﺸﻐﻞ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﺍً ﺍلمنزلة ﺍﻟمقابلة ﻟﻤﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺡ، ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻳﺜﻘله ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺮ ﺑﻤﺎ يحمل ﻣﻦ ﻣﻐﺰﻯ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎلاﺕ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻠﻴﺔ.

ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ بتكتيكات ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﺔ.  فعلى ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل، ﻳﻨﺠﺢ ﻣﺍﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺤﺘﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻀﺮ تدمير ﺻﺮﺡ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺭﺯ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ الوطنية ﻓﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺻﻔﺎً ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺎً ﻟصفة ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺜﻮﺱ٭: ﺷﺮﻳﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﻊ ﺗﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ٤٥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﺤﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺭﺃﺳﻴﺔ ﻭتتدﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﺍﺑﺔ ﺳﻮﺩﺍﺀ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ.  فبالرغم ﻣﻤﺎ تمتلئ به ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺃﺑﻬﺔ، ﻓﺈﻧﻬﺎ لا ﺗﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻣﺎ يحمله ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺒﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻭﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ. ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺟﻼﺀ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺎﺕ عرﺽ  ﺯﺟﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺗﻀﻢ ﻣﻘﺘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺤﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻛﺮﻯ عالم ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﺳﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺭﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ، ٢٠١١.

إﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻟﻬﺎ “ﻣﺎﺩﺓ” ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻮﺍﻗﻊ الأمر ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ، ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﺗﺮﺑﻄ به إيمان ﻋﻴﺴﻰ بشكل شخصي، ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺤﺠﻢ هي ﻋﻦ وصفها ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ.  ﻳﺴﺘﺜﻴﺮ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍلأﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ “ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ” ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻳﺔ ﺗﻌﺮّﻑ ﺗﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺨﺘﺒﺮ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻣﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻭﺡ، ﺇﺫ ﺗﺷﻖ ﺳﺒﻞ علاﻗﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ (ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭبيننا) ﻋﻮﺿﺎً ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰﻳﺔ.  ﻻ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺷﺎﻏﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻧﺔ ﺍلأﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ أﻭ ﺭﻓﺾ ﻣﺴﻴّﺲ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻄب (التي تستحضرها ﺍﻟﻼ- ﺻﺮﻭﺡ) ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﻇﺎﺋﻔﻬﺎ ﺫﺍﺗﻬﺍ.  ﻭﺑﺪلاً ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻀﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺡ ﻧﻔسه – ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻠﻬﻴﺔ – ﺗﺼﻴﺐ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﻛﺒﺪ ﺗﺴﺎﺅلاﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ الأﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺨﺮ ﻟﺪﻯ إﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ والتمثيل ﻭالاحساس ﻭالأﻟﻔﺔ.

ﻣﻊ ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺙ ﻧﺒﻀﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻐﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ،  تعلوها ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﺣﺎﻛﻲ أﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺗﻤﺰﻳﻖ أوراق، ﺛﻢ ﺗﻨﺎﻣﺖ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻫﺪﻳﺮ ﺟﻤﻊ بعيد، ﺷﻌﺮﺕ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺗﻘﺎﺑﻞ العنوان ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺤﺘﻲ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ التنمية الرائدة لأمة ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﺤﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟمستمر، ٢٠١١.  ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ أياً ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭأياً ﻫﻮ الاﻧﺤﺪﺍﺭ، ﻓأﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﻦ أﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻌﻲّ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻋﺘﻴﻦ يسمح بالتأويل.  ﻟﻢ ﻳﺴﻌﻨﻲ ﺳﻮﻯ استرجاع القاﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍلأﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﺤﻲ ﺣﺴﻨﻲ ﻣﺒﺎﺭك، ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺑﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻧﻲ وكأنها ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺃﺻﺪﺍﺀ ﻫﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﻮﺩ، ﺣﺘﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺭﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ.  أﻋﺮﻑ أﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ، ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺪ: إﻥ لاﺳﺘﺬﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ أﻳﺔ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺴﻬﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺛﻮﺭﻱ، ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﻟﻲ ﻣﺒﺘﺬلاً ﻭﻣﻄﻨﺒﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ.  ﻓﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ترﻥ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻃﺮﻗﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ أﻱ ﺳﻄﺢ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍلأﺛﺮ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ. ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎن ﺫﻠﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍلأﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻔﻀﻠﻪ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﺛﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ تكتيكات ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻭﺡ (ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻲ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺗﻬﺎ) أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ تبدو.  ﻭلا ﺑﺄس، ﺇﺫ أﻣﺮّ ﺍلآﻥ بفترة أعارض ﻓﻴﻬﺎ الأفعال ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﻴﺪ ﺼﺮﻭحاً، ﻭﻳﺼﺒﺢ فيها ﻋﻤل ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ إﻳﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ أﻛﺜﺮ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻣن أي من ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍلأﻓﻌﺎﻝ.
ﻣﻴﺎ ﻳﺎﻧﻜﻮﻓﻴﺘﺶ

٭ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺛﻮﺱ:bathos  ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ bathys ﻭﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻀﺎﺭ الجلالة ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺨﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍلأﻣﻮﺭ ﺍلاﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ، ﺃﻭ ﺍلاﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺭﻧﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺻﻮﺭ ﺭﻓﻴﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻪ (ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺟم)

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